What is pre-engineered steel house / Pre-engineered house? Overview of pre-engineered steel buildings

1. What is pre-engineered steel building?

Pre-engineered steel building santa clara project

Pre-engineering building (PEB) is a type of house made from steel structures, fabricated and installed according to pre-specified architectural and technical drawings.

A pre-engineered steel building product is made in 3 main stages: Design, fabrication of components and erection at the site. 

2. History of formation and development of pre-engineered steel buildings

History of pre-engineered steel buildings

Along with the development of technology and techniques in construction, pre-engineered steel building solutions have been introduced to Vietnam since the early 20th century, when the country was a French colony. Most of the works at this period were built by France such as Opera House, cinema, train factory, shipyard, textile factory, coal factory, etc.

Hanoi Opera House

1950s - 1960s

During the period when North Vietnam was independent, with the support and help of socialist countries, a number of large pre-engineered steel buildings were built during this period such as Lam Thao phosphate factory, Thai iron and steel factory. Nguyen, Hanoi mechanical factory, …

Thai Nguyen Iron and Steel Factory

1954s - 1975s

During this period, the works were built on a small scale, quickly assembled, and quickly dismantled to meet the requirements of evacuation and anti-war such as warehouses, workshops with trusses, ....

1975s - 1990s

After the reunification of the country in 1975, the works were mainly restored and rebuilt, taking advantage of the works that were built by foreign countries to serve production.

From 1990 to present

This is a period of strong growth and development in construction. With the strong development of economy and construction, major projects in Vietnam in this period were mainly built with steel structures such as Nam Dinh Gymnasium, Tuan Chau Dolphin Show, and Hanoi Museum. , Marriott hotel, .....

Ha Noi Museum

3. Basic structure of pre-engineered steel buildings

Typical pre-engineered steel factory structure

  • Foundation structure system

Like reinforced concrete houses, the foundation system of pre-engineered steel buildings is still made of reinforced concrete. The system has the effect of transmitting the load above to the hard ground below, depending on the geology and load of the work, the foundation can be single foundation, ice foundation, raft foundation, ....

Before the foundation concrete is poured, the foundation bolts (or anchor bolts) are correctly and firmly connected to the foundation steel system. The installation step of foundation bolts is an important step and requires high precision to ensure that the installation of column and beam members is easy and accurate. Commonly used foundation bolts are M22, M24, M30 .. with durability grade 6.6, 8.8,10.9…. depending on the calculation of the works.

  • Factory background

The factory floor is usually poured with concrete under the base layer and compacted sand. The thickness of concrete foundation depends on the load of machines and vehicles moving in the factory. The substrate is usually polished or epoxy painted to ensure a clean glossy surface during use.

Depending on the geology as well as the load-bearing properties of the foundation to choose the appropriate reinforcement (concrete foundation with steel, concrete foundation without steel or even foundation reinforced with concrete piles) 

  • The main structural frame system includes columns, beams, and steel trusses

Steel columns, trusses are the main structure of pre-engineered steel buildings, designed to withstand large loads and spans up to 100m according to the requirements of each factory.

Columns and trusses are usually designed in the form of H steel to change the cross-section, or truss structure. The connection between the column and the truss is usually by coding and connected by high-strength bolts.

Pre-engineered steel buildings of Vietnam-Japan steel projectViet Nhat Steel Factory Project

  • Skyroof and canopy

The skylight is usually placed on the top of the factory, which has the effect of getting natural light and ventilation to help the factory ventilation during the production process.

Canopy roof is a system of lobby roofs with the effect of shading sun and rain with steel structure using aluminum cladding, roofed with corrugated iron or glass.

Pre-engineered steel building for candle production Aidi VietnamCandle Factory Project AIDI Vietnam Candle Art Company

  • Purlins and bracing system

Galvanized steel purlins are usually in the shape of C, Z, U ... with many different heights and thicknesses based on each column step and load... purlin distance from 1m to 1,4m. It is connected to the truss by bolts through the pre-welded code plates on the truss, with the main effect to support the corrugated iron roof system above.

The system of gable bracing, roof bracing, purlin bracing increases the connection between frames. Ensure the stability of the frame structure during erection and since use.

Pre-engineered steel buildings of Haesung projectWorks of Haesung Vietnam Co., Ltd

  • Roof, panel cover

Roof or roof panel There are many varieties for factories, but the most common is the corrugated iron roof, the panel is constructed with an additional layer of insulation by air bags or glass wool to help prevent heat and noise for the factory.

Pre-engineered steel house project HH ​​Dream PrintingHH Dream Printing Project

4. Basic materials for building pre-engineered steel buildings

There are 3 basic types of materials for building pre-engineered steel buildings: steel frames, roofing sheets and covering panels.

  • Steel frame

Pre-engineered steel building AIDI Vietnam candle projectFactory Project of Aidi Vietnam Candle Art One Member Co., Ltd

Steel frame can be said to be one of the main and indispensable materials of pre-engineered steel buildings. Depending on the purpose of use of each project, investors can choose steel frames of different sizes.

Total production procedure can produce synchronously and bring to the work for construction and erection. As a result, construction time is shortened. In addition, steel is lighter in weight than concrete, so it reduces the tonnage pressure in all aspects.

  • Roofing corrugated iron

Pre-engineered steel building santa clara project

Santa Clara Garment Factory Project

In addition to steel frames, corrugated iron is used to cover and roof most industrial buildings such as factories, warehouses, garages, etc. Because of its light weight and variety of colors, it is increasingly popular. more than. Ton has many types, depending on each project that gives the appropriate choice. 

Currently, there are 3 popular types of corrugated iron: 3-layer heat-insulating corrugated iron, 1-layer ordinary corrugated iron, and light-weighted corrugated iron. However, corrugated iron has no soundproofing ability, so noise reduction is limited.

  • Covering, shaping

Pre-engineered steel house project of CP Hai Duong livestock factoryCP Vietnam Livestock Joint Stock Company Factory - Hai Duong branch

After having the main frame and roof, the curtain wall is an indispensable part of the prefabricated house. To ensure certainty, in the past, people often chose bricks to make walls and partitions for construction. But bricks need to be exploited from nature and have to go through the calcination stage, which affects the protection of the environment and natural resources. In addition, traditional bricks have a heavy weight and a long construction process. Therefore, nowadays, people often use corrugated iron sheets, panels or other prefabricated materials to replace this traditional fired brick. This type of material is lighter in weight than other materials, helping to reduce the load pressure in all aspects on the building.

5. Advantages and disadvantages of pre-engineered steel buildings

Advantages of pre-engineered steel buildings compared to reinforced concrete buildings

CharacteristicSteel BuildingsReinforced concrete house
Construction costsThanks to the system-based implementation method, the cost of design, production and erection has been significantly reduced. The overall price per square meter can be reduced to 30% lower than the cost of building reinforced concrete housesMore expensive
Force-resistanceEasily calculate and design loads. All components have been pre-manufactured at the factory under controlled conditions with modern technology, so the quality is guaranteed.It is easy to calculate and design the load, but because of construction at the construction site, it is difficult to ensure the quality of the product without strict monitoring measures during the construction process.
Construction timeFabrication, assembly and construction time is faster than construction of reinforced concrete houses up to 50%. It only takes a few weeks, even a few days, if the human resources work quickly, it is possible to complete a pre-engineered steel building.Slow and time consuming
Work qualityComponents are factory machined through rigorous processes, standards, and quality control prior to construction on site. Direct construction at the construction site is difficult to ensure the same quality as processing at the factory without strict inspection and supervision measures. Difficult to repair and costly for defective products during construction
Upgrading, maintenance, maintenance, repair workEasy upgrade, low maintenance cost. Flexibility in expanding that space by adding additional steel framesDifficult to repair, if modified, it will take time to destroy, chisel and cost a lot
ArchitectureComponents have been manufactured at the factory according to pre-approved drawings, difficult to shape such as curves and moldings.Flexible in design, easy in shaping flexible and soft curves
Project lifeMost pre-engineered steel building frames have a lifespan of 100 years or more, for example: San Sebastian Church was completed in 1891, Brooklyn Bridge was completed in 1883, ...Depending on the investment rate and quality of the project, the project has a lifespan of 40-100 years
Environmental sanitationThe components of pre-engineered steel buildings are manufactured in the factory, so all auxiliary materials are utilized and recycled, thereby significantly reducing the amount of construction waste.Materials are often wasted Pollution at the construction site, dirt causes water pollution

 Disadvantages of pre-engineered steel buildings

Besides the outstanding advantages, pre-engineered steel buildings also have some disadvantages below:

STTDisadvantagesSolution
1Steel frames have less heat resistance than reinforced concrete. Fireproof paint, this type of paint can withstand temperatures up to 1000 degrees Celsius Covering concrete, ceramic, fireproof materials,... Besides, the building also needs to comply with the requirements of fire prevention equipment , fire fighting
2Easily corroded or oxidized in hot and humid conditionsAnti-rust paint, both to ensure that the steel is not oxidized and rusted, while improving the aesthetics of the building

 6. Application of pre-engineered steel buildings to today's life

Pre-engineered steel buildings are increasingly showing its advantages, so building pre-engineered steel buildings is one of the optimal solutions for projects in the field of industrial and civil construction such as factories, houses. Warehouses, Workshops, Offices, Gas Stations, Galleries, Metro Stations, Garage Shacks, Schools, Indoor Stadium Covers, Bridges, Platforms, Outdoor Stadiums, ... 

Illustrating images:

Hilton Columbus flyover in downtown Columbus, Ohio, USA

Hilton Columbus flyover in downtown Columbus, Ohio, USA

 

King's Cross Station in London, England

King's Cross Station in London, England

 

Oriente Train Station, Lisbon, Portugal

Oriente Train Station, Lisbon, Portugal

 

Cat Bi Airport - Hai Phong

Cat Bi Airport – Hai Phong

 

Walt Disney Concert Hall, Los Angeles, USA

Walt Disney Concert Hall, Los Angeles, USA

 

Hockey stadium in Jaca, Aragon, Spain

Hockey stadium in Jaca, Aragon, Spain

 

Chrysler Building, New York City, USA

Chrysler Building, New York City, USA

 

Aeon mall, Hai Phong city, Vietnam

Aeon mall, Hai Phong city, Vietnam

 
 
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